5 things you should know about the geography of Poland

In the Carpathians

In the Carpathians ©jac o p o/Flick

Poland is a country with more and more visitors, but many people know very little about it. Poland has an area of ​​312,685 square kilometers and is located in Central Europe with direct access to the Baltic Sea. It has borders with Germany to the west, the Czech Republic and Slovakia to the south, Ukraine and Belarus to the east and Lithuania, the Baltic Sea and Russia to the north.

Below we present you 5  things you should know about the geography of Poland including the topography and climate in the country.

The relief of Poland

Although Poland appears to be an uninterrupted plain, the relief is very complex. The average elevation in Poland is 175 m, but reaches 2499 m in the top of the Rysy Mountain of the Tatras in the south and in the Vistula delta reaches 2 m below the sea level. Poland is divided into several parallel regions coming from east to west.

Mountains of Poland

Mountains of Poland ©.Pete./Flick

The north part occupying the two-thirds of the territory is a region of plains and low hills, divided into the central Polish plains, the Baltic heights and the coastal plain. The central plain is crossed from east to west by a series of swampy wide valleys. At the north of the central plains are the Baltic heights with hills (Pomeranian hills and Mazuriene hills) and lakes. The low coastal plain is a 40-100 km wide strip, stretching on the entire length of the Baltic Sea. The 491 km long coast is very smooth except the western Pomeranian Gulf and the eastern Gulf of Gdansk. Along the Baltic Sea are some natural harbors.

The remaining third of the territory in southern Poland consists of highly varied terrain (hills, plains and mountains). A narrow belt of mountains occupies the south and the southwest extreme. The Carpathian Mountains located at the southeast border include the Tatra and the Beskizi groups. The Sudetes, another important group of mountains, is located at the southwest border. In the north is an area of low hills called the Plain of Silesia and the Low Polish Plateaus.

In the Carpathians

In the Carpathians ©jac o p o/Flick

Almost all Polish waters flow into the Baltic Sea through the two large rivers of Vistula and Oder and their tributaries of which we mention the Warta and the Bug. The Polish lakes that are close to 9300 are concentrated on the higher areas and on the Baltic coastal strip. Poland has nearly 120 artificial lakes located mostly in the Baltic high places and in the southern mountains.

The Vistula River

The Vistula River ©b1mbo/Flick


The climate of Poland is temperate, with cold winters, misty and frequent rainfall, mild summers with frequent rains and thunderstorms, a mix between the western maritime climate and the continental climate in the east. In January the average temperature of Warsaw is -3 °C, and in July is 18.6 °C.

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